Deep Learning 3

The session Deep Learning 3 will be held on thursday, 2019-09-19, from 16:20 to 18:00, at room 0.004 (AOK-HS). The session chair is Romain Tavenard.


17:00 - 17:20
LYRICS: a General Interface Layer to Integrate Logic Inference and Deep Learning (183)
Giuseppe Marra (University of Florence; University of Siena), Francesco Giannini (University of Siena), Michelangelo Diligenti (University of Siena), Marco Gori (University of Siena)

In spite of the amazing results obtained by deep learning in many applications, a real intelligent behavior of an agent acting in a complex environment is likely to require some kind of higher-level symbolic inference. Therefore, there is a clear need for the definition of a general and tight integration between low-level tasks, processing sensorial data that can be effectively elaborated using deep learning techniques, and the logic reasoning that allows humans to take decisions in complex environments.This paper presents LYRICS, a generic interface layer for AI, which is implemented in TersorFlow (TF). LYRICS provides an input language that allows to define arbitrary First Order Logic (FOL) background knowledge. The predicates and functions of the FOL knowledge can be bound to any TF computational graph, and the formulas are converted into a set of real-valued constraints, which participate to the overall optimization problem. This allows to learn the weights of the learners, under the constraints imposed by the prior knowledge.The framework is extremely general as it imposes no restrictions in terms of which models or knowledge can be integrated. In this paper, we show the generality of the approach showing some use cases of the presented language, including model checking, supervised learning and collective classification.

17:20 - 17:40
Quantile Layers: Statistical Aggregation in Deep Neural Networks for Eye Movement Biometrics (321)
Ahmed Abdelwahab (Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Engineering), Niels Landwehr (Bioeconomy e.V. (ATB), Potsdam)

Human eye gaze patterns are highly individually characteristic. Gaze patterns observed during the routine access of a user to a device or document can therefore be used to identify subjects unobtrusively,that is, without the need to perform an explicit verification such as entering a password.Existing approaches to biometric identification from gaze patterns segment raw gaze data into short, local patterns called saccades and fixations. Subjects are then identified by characterizing the distribution of these patterns or deriving hand-crafted features for them.In this paper, we follow a different approach by training deep neural networks directly on the raw gaze data.As the distribution of short, local patterns has been shown to be particularly informative for distinguishing subjects, we introduce a parameterized and end-to-end learnable statistical aggregation layer called the quantile layer that enables the network to explicitly fit the distribution offilter activations in preceeding layers. We empirically show that deep neural networks with quantile layers outperform existing probabilistic and feature-based methods for identifying subjectsbased on eye movements by a large margin.

Reproducible Research
16:40 - 17:00
Hyper-Parameter-Free Generative Modelling with Deep Boltzmann Trees (637)
Nico Piatkowski (TU Dortmund)

Deep neural networks achieve state-of-the-art results in various classification and synthetic data generation tasks. However, only little is known about why depth improves a model. We investigate the structure of stochastic deep neural works, also known as Deep Boltzmann Machines, to shed some light on this issue. While the best known results postulate an exponential dependence between the number of visible units and the depth of the model, we show that the required depth is upper bounded by the longest path in the underlying junction tree, which is at most linear in the number of visible units. Moreover, we show that the conditional independence structure of any categorical Deep Boltzmann Machine contains a sub-tree that allows the consistent estimation of the full joint probability mass function of all visible units. We connect our results to l_1-regularized maximum-likelihood estimation and Chow-Liu trees. Based on our theoretical findings, we present a new tractable version of Deep Boltzmann Machines, namely the Deep Boltzmann Tree (DBT). We provide a hyper-parameter-free algorithm for learning the DBT from data, and propose a new initialization method to enforce convergence to good solutions. Our findings provide some theoretical evidence for why a deep model might be beneficial. Experimental results on benchmark data show, that the DBT is a theoretical sound alternative to likelihood-free generative models.

16:20 - 16:40
Sobolev Training with Approximated Derivatives for Black-Box Function Regression with Neural Networks (725)
Matthias Kissel (Technical University of Munich), Klaus Diepold (Technical University of Munich)

With Sobolev Training, neural networks are trained to fit target output values as well as target derivatives with respect to the inputs. This leads to better generalization and fewer required training examples for certain problems. In this paper, we present a training pipeline that enables Sobolev Training for regression problems where target derivatives are not directly available. Thus, we propose to use a least-squares estimate of the target derivatives based on function values of neighboring training samples. We show for a variety of black-box function regression tasks that our training pipeline achieves smaller test errors compared to the traditional training method. Since our method has no additional requirements on the data collection process, it has great potential to improve the results for various regression tasks.

Reproducible Research
17:40 - 18:00
LSALSA: Accelerated Source Separation via Learned Sparse Coding (J28)
Benjamin Cowen, Apoorva Nandini Saridena, Anna Choromanska

Parallel Sessions