Clustering, Anomaly & Outlier Detection

The session Clustering, Anomaly & Outlier Detection will be held on tuesday, 2019-09-17, from 14:00 to 16:00, at room 0.001. The session chair is Thomas Seidl.


14:00 - 14:20
Unsupervised and Active Learning using Maximin-based Anomaly Detection (161)
Zahra Ghafoori (University of Melbourne), James C. Bezdek (University of Melbourne), Christopher Leckie (University of Melbourne), Shanika Karunasekera (University of Melbourne)

Unsupervised anomaly detection is commonly performed using a distance or density based technique, such as K-Nearest neighbours, Local Outlier Factor or One-class Support Vector Machines. One-class Support Vector Machines reduce the computational cost of testing new data by providing sparse solutions. However, all these techniques have relatively high computational requirements for training. Moreover, identifying anomalies based solely on density or distance is not sufficient when both point (isolated) and cluster anomalies exist in an unlabelled training set. Finally, these unsupervised anomaly detection techniques are not readily adapted for active learning, where the training algorithm should identify examples for which labelling would make a significant impact on the accuracy of the learned model. In this paper, we propose a novel technique called Maximin-based Anomaly Detection that addresses these challenges by selecting a representative subset of data in combination with a kernel-based model construction. We show that the proposed technique (a) provides a statistically significant improvement in the accuracy as well as the computation time required for training and testing compared to several benchmark unsupervised anomaly detection techniques, and (b) effectively uses active learning with a limited budget.

Reproducible Research
15:40 - 16:00
CatchCore: Catching Hierarchical Dense Subtensor (451)
Wenjie Feng (CAS Key Laboratory of Network Data Science & Technology, Institute of Computing Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences), Shenghua Liu (CAS Key Laboratory of Network Data Science & Technology, Institute of Computing Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences), Huawei Shen (CAS Key Laboratory of Network Data Science & Technology, Institute of Computing Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences), Xueqi Cheng (CAS Key Laboratory of Network Data Science & Technology, Institute of Computing Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Dense subtensor detection gains remarkable success in spotting anomaly and fraudulent behaviors for the multi-aspect data (i.e., tensors), like in social media and event streams.Existing methods detect the densest subtensors flatly and separately, with an underlying assumption that those subtensors are exclusive.However, many real-world tensors usually present hierarchical properties, e.g., the core-periphery structure or dynamic communities in networks. In this paper, we propose CatchCore, a novel framework to effectively find the hierarchical dense subtensors. We first design a unified metric for dense subtensor detection, which can be optimized with gradient-based methods. With the proposed metric, detects hierarchical dense subtensors through the hierarchy-wise alternative optimization.Finally, we utilize the minimum description length principle to measure the quality of detection result and select the optimal hierarchical dense subtensors.Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate that outperforms the top competitors in accuracy for detecting dense subtensors and anomaly patterns. Additionally, CatchCore successfully identified a hierarchical researcher co-authorship group with intense interactions in DBLP dataset. Meanwhile, CatchCore also scales linearly with all aspects of tensors.

Reproducible Research
15:20 - 15:40
Fast and Parallelizable Ranking with Outliers from Pairwise Comparisons (468)
Sungjin Im (University of California), Mahshid Montazer Qaem (University of California)

In this paper, we initiate the study of the problem of ordering objects from their pairwise comparison results when allowed to discard up to a certain number of objects as outliers. More specifically, we seek to find an ordering under the popular Kendall tau distance measure, i.e., minimizing the number of pairwise comparison results that are inconsistent with the ordering, with some outliers removed. The presence of outliers challenges the assumption that a global consistent ordering exists and obscures the measure. This problem does not admit a polynomial time algorithm unless NP ⊆ BPP, and therefore, we develop approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for all inputs. Our algorithms have running time and memory usage that are almost linear in the input size. Further, they are readily adaptable to run on massively parallel platforms such as MapReduce or Spark.

Reproducible Research
14:40 - 15:00
Robust Anomaly Detection in Images using Adversarial Autoencoders (581)
Laura Beggel (Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence, Renningen; Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich), Michael Pfeiffer (Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence, Renningen), Bernd Bischl (Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich)

Reliably detecting anomalies in a given set of images is a task of high practical relevance for visual quality inspection, surveillance, or medical image analysis. Autoencoder neural networks learn to reconstruct normal images, and hence can classify those images as anomalies, where the reconstruction error exceeds some threshold. Here we analyze a fundamental problem of this approach when the training set is contaminated with a small fraction of outliers.We find that continued training of autoencoders inevitably reduces the reconstruction error of outliers, and hence degrades the anomaly detection performance. In order to counteract this effect, an adversarial autoencoder architecture is adapted, which imposes a prior distribution on the latent representation, typically placing anomalies into low likelihood-regions.Utilizing the likelihood model, potential anomalies can be identified and rejected already during training, which results in an anomaly detector that is significantly more robust to the presence of outliers during training.

14:20 - 14:40
The Elliptical Basis Function Data Descriptor (EBFDD) Network - A One-Class Classification Approach to Anomaly Detection (212)
Mehran H. Z. Bazargani (The Insight Centre for Data Analytics, School of Computer Science, University College Dublin), Brian Mac Namee (The Insight Centre for Data Analytics, School of Computer Science, University College Dublin)

This paper introduces the Elliptical Basis Function Data Descriptor (EBFDD) network, a one-class classification approach to anomaly detection based on Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks. The EBFDD network uses elliptical basis functions, which allows it to learn sophisticated decision boundaries while retaining the advantages of a shallow network. We have proposed a novel cost function, whose minimisation results in a trained anomaly detector that only requires examples of the normal class at training time. The paper includes a large benchmark experiment that evaluates the performance of EBFDD network and compares it to state of the art one-class classification algorithms including the One-Class Support Vector Machine and the Isolation Forest. The experiments show that, overall, the EBFDD network outperforms the state of the art approaches.

Reproducible Research
15:00 - 15:20
Pattern-Based Anomaly Detection in Mixed-Type Time Series (681)
Len Feremans (University of Antwerp), Vincent Vercruyssen (KU Leuven), Boris Cule (University of Antwerp), Wannes Meert (KU Leuven), Bart Goethals (University of Antwerp; Monash University)

The present-day accessibility of technology enables easy logging of both sensor values and event logs over extended periods. In this context, detecting abnormal segments in time series data has become an important data mining task. Existing work on anomaly detection focuses either on continuous time series or discrete event logs and not on the combination.However, in many practical applications, the patterns extracted from the event log can reveal contextual and operational conditions of a device that must be taken into account when predicting anomalies in the continuous time series.This paper proposes an anomaly detection method that can handle mixed-type time series. The method leverages frequent pattern mining techniques to construct an embedding of mixed-type time series on which an isolation forest is trained. Experiments on several real-world univariate and multivariate time series, as well as a synthetic mixed-type time series, show that our anomaly detection algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art anomaly detection techniques such as MatrixProfile, Pav, Mifpod and Fpof.

Reproducible Research

Parallel Sessions